Efficacy of Pour-on Dewormers Differing in Active Ingredient and Carrier on Weight Gain and Fecal Egg Count in Stocker Cattle.
Various dewormers are prevalent in the beef cattle industry to increase productivity and performance in cattle during all phases of growth. Factors influencing the choice of dewormer and administration method include: type of indigenous parasites, ease of administration, length of effectiveness, and cost. Although current dewormers are effective, they vary in duration and cost. Previous studies suggest that weight gain is certainly influenced by the choice of dewormer. This project is designed to appropriately test the effects of differing dewormers and routes of administration, the various dewormers must be tested against each other in a uniform group of cattle, during one growing season, in a controlled situation. The cattle arriving at Swanton Pacific Ranch from Hawaii typically are susceptible to parasite infestation due to relatively high parasite load in the forage. Approximately 500 head of cattle will be randomly assigned to 1 of five treatment groups, including (1) Cydectin, (2) Ivomectin pour-on, (3) Eprinex, (4) Dectomax, and (5) non-treated control. Initial treatment will be completed at delivery to the ranch. Cattle will be retreated approximately 112 days after initial treatment. Cattle will be weighed monthly, and fecal samples will be collected to determine egg counts. Larval cultures will be completed to identify species of parasites. The working hypothesis for this study is that increased productivity (weight gain) will be realized in cattle medicated with the most effective dewormer and route of administration, as indicated by fecal testing.
Long-Term Water Quality, Geomorphic, and Habitat Evaluation of a California Coastal Mountain Stream Following Selection Timber Harvesting Activities
This project is essentially an augmentation of an existing ARI project (00-3-011) which uses a paired watershed design to study the effects of timber harvesting practices on water quality. This new proposal enhances the project by monitoring additional water quality parameters, and geomorphic and habitat parameters. Sophisticated interaction between instream sensors and automated water quality samplers will maximize sampling efficiency and statistical validity of the results. Remote data access capabilities will enable monitoring of real-time weather and sampling data to efficiently dispatch field personnel for sample pickup and troubleshoot hydrologic instrumentation.
Development of a line of smoked cheeses for Cal Poly Creamery
Smoking of cheese performs two functions; it imparts a characteristic smoked flavor and also helps preserve cheese. Traditionally, cheese is smoked by application of natural smoke, but liquid smoke is becoming popular, although not preferred in flavor tests. Natural smoke retards some enzymatic reactions involved in the ripening of cheese and the optimal timing for application of smoke has not been published for popular cheeses in the U.S. This project will study the time of application of natural smoke in Cheddar, Gouda and San Luis Lace cheeses and the correlation to dryness, rate of ripening, compositional changes and sensory characteristics.
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Developing an Uneven-Aged Growth and Yield Model for the Coast Redwood Forest Type
Uneven-aged forest management is becoming favored nationwide over even-aged systems primarily for socio-political reasons but also to enhance watershed and wildlife values. Recent advances in computer technology have permitted the broadening of the range of conditions in modeling stand growth and yield to individual tree relationships. However, current data is based on homogeneous, even-aged stands. This project will model Coast Redwood forest during the transition from even to steady-state uneven-aged management. This will provide forest planners and property owners the information needed to optimize similar transitions.
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Implementation and Comparison of Best Management Practices in Reducing Non-Point Pollution and Improving Water Quality in the Brizzolara and Stenner Creeks on the Cal Poly Campus
Documented evidence shows that grazing of domesticated animals in riparian areas is a cause of non-point source water pollution. No longer can cattlemen allow their livestock to freely roam pastures when riparian areas are present without causing detrimental effects to the landscape and water quality. Cal Poly’s outside laboratories and grazing land offer a tremendous opportunity to implement Best Management Practices (BMPs) which will provide an excellent laboratory for monitoring research and instruction for good stewardship of our western rangeland. Specifically, objectives of this project are to: identify sediment load and turbidity, monitor stream temperature, identify BMPs which would reduce non-point source pollutants, implement selected BMPs, and assess the impact of the selected BMPs on non-point source pollutant reduction.
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Uses of Processed Willow Trees
Willow chips are a waste product created from stream clearing common during the summer in California. Currently, the chips are disposed of as mulch on site or taken to landfills. This project will investigate more economically and ecologically sound options for this material. The first option is as a top dressing for enhancing seed generation in vegetables and flowers grown in fields. The second option is as an ingredient in compost. A source of nitrogen would be needed and could reasonably be supplied by horse and cow manure which are usually available in the same areas. The third option involves using willow chips and willow chip compost as a media ingredient for nursery plant production.
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Comparative Microbiological Evaluation of Organically grown and Conventionally-grown Fresh Lettuce
The purpose of this project is to conduct the first microbiological audit and comparison of selected fruit and vegetables grown by certified organic farming and handling practices and conventional farming and handling practices. Although the dangers of pesticide consumption resulting from conventional farming are relatively well documented, recent perceptions that there may be a greater risk of food borne illness from organically grown foods have increased the level of confusion for consumers. This research will focus on comparing the microbiological profile of selected vegetables and fruits from both growth practices from the field, through harvest, transport, storage, and to the retail locations.
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Influence of Mood on Food Choice Using Food Typicalities as the Dependent Variable
Impulse food purchases are heavily influenced by affective processes such as emotions and moods. Traditionally, research has centered on cognitive processes such as memory, attitudes, and beliefs and used questionnaires which can produce biased results depending on what the customer wants the researcher to believe. This research project will measure actual behaviors using software which displays virtual-reality images of food, allowing the consumer to inspect the food from all sides. Computer-aided methodology offers privacy, ease of measurement, and the advantage that the subjects are actually looking at food, not an interviewer. In addition, the virtual-reality setting also allows for the researcher to control for the mood of the subject by inserting images which are conducive to stimulating different moods while the subjects continue to “shop”.
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Analysis of platelet activating factor in the gravid reproductive tracts of swine
Platelet activating factor (PAF) is secreted by mouse embryos and perhaps the uterine lumen. It is surmised that swine embryos also produce PAF. This project will analyze the levels of PAF in reproductive tracts of gravid swine and correlate this data with litter size. Another goal is to develop a chemiluminesent assay which could be performed in any laboratory rather than the current radioimmunoassay. Once such a technique is available, boars could be tested for levels of seminal PAF as a possible indicator of breeding efficiency. Increasing the number of pigs per litter would decrease the cost per pig and provide a valuable streamlining method for the commercial hog industry.
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Evaluation of factors influencing cell count of probiotic bacteria
There is increasing interest on the part of the U.S. population in foods and food components that promote health and reduce disease. Probiotic bacteria are prime examples. The probiotic industry relies on cell count measurements for the production control, quality control and standardization of their products for wholesale and retail. Interestingly, however, some probiotic lactobacilli demonstrate patterns of growth that result in lower than expected colony counts after stationary phase of growth has been reached. This project is design to elucidate the mechanisms that produce this observed decrease in expected colony production. The results of this study should lead to improved production techniques and quality control.
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Invasive Plant Management Project
Economic losses associated with plant invasions have been estimated to be $100 billion annually in the U.S., in addition to immeasurable ecological and aesthetic losses. Exotic species invasion into natural ecosystems represents among the most significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem stability. Scientists and land managers agree that the most effective management protocol is prevention, prediction, and control. The objectives adopt this protocol in the following manner. Education is the essence of a viable management strategy based on prevention. A manual of San Luis Obispo County’s most invasive species is being compiled and distributed to key private sector and public agency personnel. Prediction models will be developed using existing invasion models that will be fine-tuned with the information from responses to the manual. The model will also predict the plant species, which have not yet infested SLO County but which have the potential to if brought in inadvertently. And finally, population mapping will be carried out to identify locations to be used as test sites for control.
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New Electronic Technologies for Volumetric Metering of Delivered Water - Magnetic, Doppler, Vortex Shedding and Ultrasonic Flow Measurement
The Irrigation Training and Research Center at Cal Poly has been awarded a contract by the California Energy Commission to perform various tasks associated with optimizing water and energy resources. This project will test and evaluate new technologies for measuring water flow in a system and metering water use at destinations. Current technology is generally unsuitable for metering water use at turnouts with high flow rate and negligible pressure loss. In addition, large measurement flumes for irrigation districts can cost over $100,000; and it is expected that these new technologies can provide alternatives with the same degree of accuracy at a considerable savings. The ARI portion of this project will be for constructing the concrete structure necessary for these tests at the Water Delivery Facility located next to the Drumm Reservoir.
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Can the Use of a Silicon Additive in the Culture Solution of Hydroponically-grown Roses Improve the Quality of the Cut Flower Product?
It is believed that the viability of California’s rose industry will be dependent on the success of shifting to hydroponic production. The success of this shift will, in turn, be dependent on minimizing problems effecting the quality of roses such as biotic damage to flowers and foliage from powdery mildew, Botrytis, thrips, white flies and spider mites, and mechanical problems such as bent or weak neck and slender stems. Silicon has been shown to produce greater leaf thickness, lower propensity to wilt and higher chlorophyll concentrations. Although silicon is generally present in adequate amounts in soil, it has not been adequately investigated in hydroponic solutions for roses. This project will study the effects of silicon in the production of 3 popular cultivars of roses. The properties under investigation are mechanical strength, freedom from disease, and shelf life.
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